US Supreme Court Holds that Anti-Retaliation Provision in FLSA Covers Oral Complaints

Mr. Kasten was fired by Saint-Gobain because he complained that the company prevented its workers from being paid for the time they spent “donning and doffing” (putting on required protective gear). He claimed that the location of the company’s time clocks caused this problem. Kasten v. Saint-Gobain Performance Plastic Corp., __ U.S. __ (March 22, 2011).

The Fair Labor Standards Act prohibits employers from discharging “any employee because such employee has filed any complaint” asserting a violation of the Act. 29 U.S.C. Section 215(a)(3). This case turned solely upon the Supreme Court’s holding that the phrase “filed any complaint” includes the making of an oral complaint, here to Saint-Gobain’s officials.

The Court held that the “purpose and context” of the anti-retaliation provision led it to this interpretation. It noted that very real problems could occur if the provision did not protect those who complained orally: it could prevent government agencies from using hotlines; it could discourage the use of informal workplace grievance procedures; and it could make it difficult for workers who are less educated to complain. This led the Court to adopt a broad interpretation of the statute.

It is a cause for celebration every time this Supreme Court, with its largely pro-business slant, votes for the rights and concerns of employees. This case does provide more protection for employees around the country who complain about wage and hour violations, although the Ninth Circuit had, already, interpreted FLSA this way, to include oral complaints and thus California employees were already protected when making oral complaints. Lambert v Ackerley, 180 F.3d 997 (9th Cir. 1999).

The Court did note that Saint-Gobain argued to the Supreme Court that FLSA’s anti-retaliation provision only applied to complaints to the government, not to private employers. Holding that Saint-Gobain abandoned this argument, the Court may have unnecessarily muddied the waters around this issue, as complaints to the employer, private or otherwise, are just the types of complaints that have historically been protected. Over ten years ago, the Ninth Circuit, noting well established law, clearly ruled that complaints to the employer are protected. Lambert v Ackerley, 180 F.3d 997 (9th Cir. 1999). Indeed, if the “purpose and context” of FLSA’s anti-retaliation provision covers oral complains, it should covers complaints to non-governmental organizations and complaints by an employee to his or her own employer. After all, it would be illogical for this Supreme Court to urge employees to go straight to the government to complain about FLSA violations and leave the employer/private business out of the loop.

Jody LeWitterApril 7, 2011

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